福建师范大学19年8月《高级英语阅读(一)》离线考核

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网络与继续教育学院
《高级英语阅读(一)》期末考试A卷  

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答案务必写在答题纸上,否则不得分!
一、单项选择题(答案务必写在答题纸上, 60分,每题2分)
I  Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence.
1 .It is not so easy to keep the ___ children in the evening party quiet  .
A. wild  B. boisterous  C. clumsy  D. Violent
2. The __ man who break into the party was looked down upon by all the people present.
A. graceful  B. stubborn  C. insistent  D.   boorish
3.. The Chinese government is trying to ___  the harm of the financial crisis..
A. detract   B minimize  C gear  D discredit
4. A lot of people today are ___ illusions and don’t want to wake up.
.A  eating away at  B. fed up with  C. obsessed with D. taking pride in
5. I can’t  ___ to my grandpa that he must stay in bed now.
  A. get through  B. get on  C. get off   D. get over  
6. Litigating?a?divorce?is?____?a?war , in which both the man and the woman won’t give in.
A. parallel in  B. same as  C. akin to  D. contrary to
7. It is a wise choice to ___ the possibility of a rain before you plan for a garden party.
  A. check with B. check on  C. check in  D. check through
The US Congress is the ___ of the Australian Parliament.
  A. correlation  B. opponent  C. counterpart   D. complement
Many children like to choose ____ food without considering their nutrition.
  A. tasteful  B. distasteful  C. savory  D. unsavory  
You will have to ____ the stairs to reach the top-floor.
   A. creep  B. mount  C. rise  D. crawl  
 II  Directions: There are 4 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and write the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.  
Passage 1
        Space is a dangerous place, not only because of meteors but also because of rays from the sun and other stars.  The atmosphere again acts as our protective blanket on earth.  Light get through, and this is essential for plants to make the food which we eat.  Heat, too, makes our environment endurable.  Various kinds of rays come through the air from outer space, but enormous quantities of radiation from the sun are screened off.  As soon as men leave the atmosphere they are exposed to this radiation but their spacesuits or the walls of their spacecraft, if they are inside, do prevent a lot of radiation damage.
        Radiation is the greatest known danger to explorers in space.  The unit of radiation is called “rem”.  Scientists have reason to think that a man can put up with far more radiation than 0.1 rem without being damaged; the figure of 60 rems has been agreed on.  The trouble is that it is extremely difficult to be sure about radiation damage—a person may feel perfectly well, but the cells of his or her sex organs may be damaged, and this will not be discovered until the birth of deformed children or even grandchildren.  Missions of the Apollo flights have had to cross belts of high radiation and, during the outward and return journeys, the Apollo crew accumulated a large amounts of rems.  So far, no dangerous amount of radiation have been reported, but the Apollo missions have been quite short.  We simply do not know yet how men are going to get on when they spend weeks and months outside the protection of the atmosphere, working in a space laboratory.  Drugs might help to decrease the damage done by radiation, but no really effective ones have been found so far.
11According to the first paragraph, the atmosphere is essential to man in that _____.
it protects him against the harmful rays from space
it provides sufficient light for plant growth
it supplies the heat necessary for human survival
it screens off the falling meteors
12 We know from the passage that _____.
exposure to even tiny amounts of radiation is fatal
the effect of exposure to radiation is slow in coming
radiation is avoidable in space exploration
astronauts in spacesuits needn’t worry about radiation damage
13 The harm radiation has done to the Apollo crew member ______.
a. is insignificant                                b. seems overestimated
c. is enormous                                        d. remains unknown
14 It can be inferred from the passage that ______.
the Apollo mission was very successful
protection from space radiation is no easy job
astronauts will have deformed children or grandchildren
radiation is not a threat to well-protected space explorers
15 The best title for this passage would be ______.
The Atmosphere and Our Environment
Research on Radiation
Effects of Space Radiation
Importance of Protection Against RadiationPassage 2
        Taste is such a subjective matter that we don’t usually conduct preference tests for food.  The most you can say about anyone’s preference, is that it’s one person’s opinion.  But because the two big cola companies Coca-Cola and Pepsi Cola are marketed so aggressively, we’ve wondered how big a role taste preference actually plays in brand loyalty.  We set up a taste test that challenged people who identified themselves as either Coca-Cola or Pepsi fans: Find your brand in a blind tasting.
        We invited staff volunteers who had a strong liking for either Coca-Cola classic or Pepsi, Diet Coke, or Diet Pepsi.  These were people who thought they’d have no trouble telling their brand from the other brand.
        We eventually located 19 regular cola drinkers and 27 diet Cola drinkers.  Then we fed them four unidentified samples of cola one at a time, regular colas for the one group, diet versions for the other.  We asked them to tell us whether each sample was Coke or Pepsi; then we analyzed the records statistically to compare the participants’ choices with what mere guess-work could have accomplished.
        Getting all four samples right was a tough test, but not too tough, we thought, for people who believed they could recognize their brand.  In the end, only 7 out of 19 regular cola drinkers correctly identified their brand of choice in all four trials.  The diet-cola drinkers did a little worse-only 7 of 27 identified all four samples correctly.
        While both groups did better than chance would predict, nearly half the participants in each group made the wrong choice two or more times.  Two people got all four samples wrong.  Overall, half the participants did about as well on the last round of tasting as on the first, so fatigue, or taste burnout, was not a factor.  Our preference test results suggest that only a few Pepsi participants and Coke fans may really be able to tell their favorite brand by taste and price.
16 According to the passage the preference test was conducted in order to ______.
find out the role taste preference plays in a person’s drinking
reveal which cola is more to the liking of the drinkers
show that a person’s opinion about taste is mere guess-work
compare the ability of the participants in choosing their drinks
17 The statistics recorded in the preference tests show _____.
Coca-Cola and Pepsi are people’s two most favorite drinks
there is not much difference in taste between Coca-Cola and Pepsi
few people had trouble telling Coca-Cola from Pepsi
people’s tastes differ from one another
18 It is implied in the first paragraph that _______.
the purpose of taste tests is to promote the sale of colas
the improvement of quality is the chief concern of the two cola companies
the competition between the two colas is very strong.
Blind tasting is necessary for identifying fans
19 The word “burnout” (in the second sentence from the end, Para. 5) here refers to the state of ______.
being seriously burnt in the skin
being unable to burn for lack of fuel
being badly damaged by fire
being unable to function because of excessive use
20 The author’s purpose in writing this passage is to ______.
show that taste preference is highly subjective
argue that taste testing is an important marketing strategy
emphasize that taste and price are closely related to each other
recommend that blind tasting be introduced in the quality control of colasPassage 3
        The concept of “environment” is certainly difficult and may even be misunderstood; but we have no handy substitute.  It seems simple enough to distinguish between the organism and the surrounding environment and to separate forces acting on an organism into those that are internal and biological and those that are external and environmental.  But in actual practice this system breaks down in many ways, because the organism and the environment are constantly interacting so that the environment is modified by the organism and vice versa.
        In the case of man, the difficulties with the environmental concept are even more complicated because we have to deal with man as an animal and with man as a bearer of culture.  If we look at man as an animal and try to analyze the environmental forces that are acting on the organism, we find that we have to deal with things like climate, soil, plants, and such-like factors common to all biological situational but we also find, always, very important environmental influences that we can only class as “cultural”, which modify the physical and biological factors.  But man, as we know him, is always a bearer of culture; and, if we study human culture, we find that it, in turn, is modified by the environmental factors of climate and geography.  We thus easily get into great difficulties from the necessity of viewing culture, at one moment, as a part of the man and, at another moment, as a part of the environment.
21 Which of the following words can best describe the popular understanding of “environment” as the author sees it?
a. Elaborate                b. Prejudiced                c. Faultless                d. Oversimplified
22 According to the author the concept of “environment” is difficult to explain because ______.
it doesn’t distinguish between the organism and the environment
it involves both internal and external forces
the organism and the environment influence each other
the relationship between the organism and the environment is unclear
23 In analyzing the environmental forces acting on man the author suggests that _____.
biological factors are less important to the organism than cultural factors to man
man and other animals are modified equally by the environ-mental forces
man is modified by the cultural environment as well as by the natural environment
physical and biological factors exert more influence on other organisms than on man
24As for culture, the author points out that ______.
it develops side by side with environmental factors
it is also affected by environmental factors
it is generally accepted to be part of the environment
it is a product of man’s biological instincts
25 In this passage, the author is primarily concerned with ______.
the interpretation of the term “environment”
the discussion on organisms and biological environment
the comparison between internal and external factors influencing man
the evaluation of man’s influence on culture
Passage 4
        The speaker, a teacher from a community college, addressed a sympathetic audience.  Heads nodded in agreement when he said, “High school English teachers are not doing their jobs.”  He described the inadequacies of his students, all high school graduates who can use language only at a grade 9 level. I was unable to determine from his answers to my questions how this grade 9 level had been established.
        My topic is neither standards nor its decline.  What the speaker was really saying is that he is no longer young; he has been teaching for sixteen years, and is able to think and speak like a mature adult.
        My point is that the frequent complaint of one generation about the one immediately following it is inevitable.  It is also human nature to look for the reasons for our dissatisfaction.  Before English became a school subject in the late nineteenth century, it was difficult to find the target of the blame for language deficiency.  But since then, English teachers have been under constant attack.
        The complainers think they have hit upon an original idea.  As their own command of the language improves, they notice that young people do not have this same ability.  Unaware that their own ability has developed through the years, they assume the new generation of young people must be hopeless in this respect.  To the eyes and ears of sensitive adults the language of the young always seems inadequate.
        Since this concern about the decline and fall of the English language is not perceived as a generational phenomenon but rather as something new and peculiar to today’s young people, it naturally follows that today’s English teachers cannot be doing their jobs, otherwise, young people would not commit offenses against the language.
26 The speaker the author mentioned in the passage believed that _______.
the language of the younger generation is usually inferior to that of the older generation
the students had a poor command of English because they didn’t work hard enough
he was an excellent language teacher because he had been teaching English for sixteen years
English teachers should be held responsible for the students’ poor command of English
27 In the author’s opinion, the speaker ______.
gave a correct judgment of the English level of the students
had exaggerated the language problems of the students
was right in saying that English teachers were not doing their jobs
could think and speak intelligently
28 The author’s attitude towards the speaker’s remarks is ______.
a. neutral                        b. positive                c. critical                d. compromising
29 It can be concluded from the passage that ______.
it is justifiable to include English as a school subject
the author disagrees with the speaker over the standard of English at Grade 9 level
English language teaching is by no means an easy job
Language improvement needs time and effort
30 In the passage the author argues that ______.
it is unfair to blame the English teachers for the language deficiencies of the students
young people would not commit offences against the language if the teachers did their jobs properly
to eliminate language deficiencies one must have sensitive eyes and ears
to improve the standard of English requires the effort of several generations   二 翻译题请将下列句子翻译为汉语(共40分 ,每题 20分)
I Translate the following two paragraphs into Chinese.
1 Instead of having to establish rules and limits, an arduous and often frustrating job, instead of having to work at socializing children in order to make them more agreeable to live with, parents could solve all these problems by resorting to the television set.
2
:We cannot eliminate the risks except by not doing those things but by doing so we just substitute a whole new set of risks; instead of risking buying a house with dry rot, we risk having a bad landlord.
答题纸
一、单项选择题

二、翻译题请将下列句子翻译为汉语
1 Instead of having to establish rules and limits, an arduous and often frustrating job, instead of having to work at socializing children in order to make them more agreeable to live with, parents could solve all these problems by resorting to the television set.
2
:We cannot eliminate the risks except by not doing those things but by doing so we just substitute a whole new set of risks; instead of risking buying a house with dry rot, we risk having a bad landlord.






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